Schellenberg, T. R. (Theodore R.), 1903-1970

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T. R. Schellenberg, “The Father of American Archival Appraisal”


T. R. Schellenberg Image:Schellenberg.jpg
Photo courtesy of the
Kansas State Historical Society

Born: Garden Township, Kansas
Died: Arlington, Virginia (age 66) Nationality: U.S.
Education: Tabor College, University of Kansas, University of Pennsylvania
Field: History
Academic Advisor: unknown
Known for: Assistant Archivist of the United States | The Appraisal of Modern Public Records | The Management of Archives

Image:TALKER.jpg Syndicated Audio Version for the Visually Impaired

Contents

Early life

Theodore Roosevelt Schellenberg (1903-1970) was born to Abraham Lawrence and Sarah Schroeder Schellenberg on February 24, 1903 in Garden Township, Harvey County, Kansas.[1] While Schellenberg had only two siblings, he claimed an extensive base of aunts, uncles, and cousins. Schellenberg’s parents both immigrated to the United States from Russia. His father was an educated professional who attended seminary in Rochester, New York, received his bachelor’s degree from McPherson College (1894-1896), and went on to hold positions of town mayor, minister, school teacher, and editor.[1] Controversial and unafraid to challenge the status quo in his writings (a trait Schellenberg would later emulate), Abraham ardently expressed in his editorials sympathetic views for Germany’s position during World War I--a time when sympathizers were frequently viewed as traitors. He was eventually reported, branded as disloyal, and forced to give up his position at the newspaper where he worked. Schellenberg, despite his father’s political influences and negative interactions with the government, aspired to spend his life helping to preserve and promote America’s national history. Emboldened with the knowledge that he could survive the consequences of criticism and personal attack, Schellenberg dared to challenge British principles and techniques which were being used at archives in the U. S. and pioneered new theoretical and practical methods for archival appraisal. In many ways, Schellenberg’s struggle for independence mirrors the history of his own nation and its founding fathers. By abandoning the vestiges of European ties and traditions in his family as well as the rules in his profession, which to him felt imposed rather than adopted, Schellenberg arrived at revolutionary ideas which made the United States unique in its archival outlook.

Education

Schellenberg’s education began at McPherson (1908-12) and Hillsboro (1912-5) elementary schools followed by secondary education at Hillsboro High School (1916-8) and Tabor Academy (1919-22). He attended Tabor College (1924-6) and then transferred to the University of Kansas where he graduated Phi Beta Kappa with a Bachelor’s degree in history in 1928. The following year he remained at the university, beginning his Master’s degree in history, and married Alma Groening with whom he later had two children. He received an AM in history from the University of Kansas, followed by a Ph.D. in history from the University of Pennsylvania in 1934. An article based on Schellenberg’s dissertation called "Jeffersonian Origins of the Monroe Doctrine" appeared in Hispanic American Historical Review in 1934 and was his first publication. [1]

Employment

In the years following the completion of his doctorate, Schellenberg began what was to be a turbulent, yet successful career with the federal government. He was immediately appointed to Executive Secretary of the Joint Committee on Materials for Research for the American Council for Learned Societies and Social Science Research, a post which he held for one year. Then, from 1935 to 1938, he landed a coveted position among his entry-level peers, Deputy Examiner at the National Archives. During this tenure he also briefly served as History Assistant for the National Parks Service and also became the Associate National Director of the Survey of Public Records for the WPA, a program which was responsible for the employment and hands-on training for a large number of new American archivists. Following this success, he was promoted to Chief of the Agricultural Department Archives and held that position from 1938 to 1945. After the war Schellenberg worked as the Director of Archival Management (1950-1956) and it was in this position that he directed a massive document reappraisal in order to deaccession old records and selectively appraise new records which were being created in voluminous bulk by federal agencies for retention. Schellenberg found that trying to apply traditional European principles to solve modern American archival problems--combined with untrained workers and inconsistent application of appraisal methodology within the federal government—did not work. He endeavored to come up with a new system of appraisal which could be codified into practical rules.

Publication History

In 1954 Schellenberg was awarded a Fulbright lectureship in Australia and New Zealand where he made landmark changes to Australia’s national archives program. The result was a series of pamphlets which became the groundwork for his first major book publication, The Appraisal of Modern Public Records (1956). This work was an attempt to supersede the Manual of Archival Administration by his older contemporary Sir Hilary Jenkinson. Schellenberg referred to Jenkinson as an “old fossil” whose outdated ideas were in need of revision. Schellenberg, in stark contrast to Jenkinson, believed that a record’s “character” rather than its “quality” should be the basis for evidentiary appraisal decisions. Character, as Schellenberg described it, could be categorized as one of two types: those records possessing primary value and those with secondary value. Schellenberg distinguished primary value as one which reflects the “administrative, fiscal, legal, [or] operating” actions of the record creator. Those of secondary value, he argued, should be kept because they exhibit a an unintended new use which emerges after the record becomes inactive. He further divided secondary value into two types: evidential value and informational value. Evidential value reveals “evidence” as to the "structure, functions, and hierarchical interrelationships of the creating body,” while informational value, means the record contains a unique concentration of information about “persons, corporate bodies, things, problems, [or] conditions.” Active selection of records by the archivist, based on these values, Schellenberg argued, is a better way to reflect the character of an organization and to preserve its history than to passively collect everything. [1]

Professional Contributions

Following this publication, Schellenberg work was translated into several languages. The success of his book let to his appointment to Assistant Archivist of the United States, a post he held until 1963, after which he taught university courses in archival administration and document preservation. Schellenberg’s second major work, The Management of Archives (1965), emerged as a product of his teaching experiences. In it he applied archival principles to the disposal of manuscripts in nongovernmental organizations and controversially suggested that the systematic methods used to teach students in library school lend themselves to teaching archival theory better than those of history programs.

T. R. Schellenberg died on January 14, 1970 at the age of 67 in Arlington Virginia. While his two major works remain classics in the history of archival administration, and fundamental to the understanding of the profession, archivist-critics of the post-custodial era have specifically targeted Schellenberg’s appraisal theory and methods for revision, particularly Terry Cook, Leonard Rapport, Frank Boles, Luciana Duranti, Hans Booms, Charles M. Dollar, and Terry Eastwood.

Archival and Manuscript Resources

Manuscript and archival materials are held at the Kansas State Historical Society, the National Archives Library, and Tabor College Library. Obituaries can be found in the Washington Post and Tabor Bulletin.

Biographical Resources

Additional sources containing biographical information include: “In Memoriam: Schellenberg (1903-1970),” AA 33.2, 1970: 190-202; Jane F. Smith’s “Theodore Schellenberg: Americanizer and Popularizer,” AA 44.4, 1981: 313-326; Susan Kinnel’s People in History: An Index to U.S. and Canadian Biographies in History Journals and Dissertations (Oxford: ABC-Clio, 1988); C. C. Williamson’s and Alice L. Jewett’s Who’s Who in Library Science (NY: H. W. Wilson, 1966); Lee Ash’s A Biographical Dictionary of Librarians in the United States and Canada (ALA, 1970); John Feather’s and Paul Sturges’ International Encyclopedia of Information and Library Science (NY: Routledge, 1997); "Theodore R. Schellenberg (1903-1970) and the National Archives," Mennonite Bibliography, 1969, rev. from The Mennonite Encyclopedia, 1969.; and the biographical section of the Kansas State Historical Society’s finding guide. Contemporary Reviews of The Management of Archives can be found in: Antiquarian Bookman 36 (1965): 733; Booklist 62 (1965): 237; AA 28.4 (1965): 565; LQ 36 (1966): 265; Library Resources and Technical Services 10 (1966): 349; and LJ 90 (1965): 3425. For further reading analyzing Schellenberg’s theory and method of archival appraisal, consult: Reto Tschan’s “A Comparison of Jenkinson and Schellenberg on Appraisal” AA 63 (2002): 176-195; Rick Stapleton’s The Ideas of T.R. Schellenberg on the Appraisal, Arrangement, and Description of Archives, (Master’s Thesis-Ottawa: National Library of Canada, 1986); Duranti, Luciana Duranti’s “Managing Records as Evidence and Informaton” LQ 73 (2003): 220-2; Frank Bole’s “Et tu Schellenberg? Thoughts on the Dagger of American Appraisal Theory: Reply to L. Duranti” AA 59.3 (1996): 298-310; and Linda Henry’s “Schellenberg in Cyberspace: Theories of Theodore Schellenberg applied to electronic records; revised version of a paper presented at the 1997 SAA Conference” AA 61.2 (1998): 309-27.

Biographical Chronology

The Life of T. R. Schellenberg: A Brief Chronology

  • 1903 Born in Harvey County, Kansas
  • 1924-1926 Attended Tabor College
  • 1926-28 Attended University of Kansas, received AB in History (graduated Phi Beta Kappa)
  • 1929 Married Alma Groening
  • 1929-30 Attended University of Kansas, received AM in History
  • 1930-4 Attended University of Pennsylvania (Ph.D. in History)
  • 1934-5 Executive Secretary Joint Committee on Materials for Research, American Council for Learned Societies and the Social Science Research Council (helped to write a pioneering report on the use of microfilm for the preservation of historical records)
  • 1935 History Assistant National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington D. C. (historian)
  • 1935 Associate National Director, Survey of Federal Archives, WPA
  • 1935-8 Deputy Examiner, National Archives
  • 1938-45 Chief, Agricultural Department Archives
  • 1945-8 Records Officer, Office of Price Administration and War Production Board
  • 1948-9 Program Advisor
  • 1950-6 Director of Archival Management
  • 1953 Developed an extensive training program for the National Archives [1]
  • 1954 Fulbright lecturer in Australia and New Zealand
  • 1957-63 Assistant Archivist of the United States
  • 1957 Meritorious Service Award, General Services Administration
  • 1959, 61 Director, Institutes on Archival Management at American University (O’Toole notes this was “virtually the only professional education of its kind in the United States at the time.” [1]
  • 1960 Graduate School of Library Science, University of Texas
  • 1962 School of Librarianship, University of Washington
  • 1965 School of Library Service, Columbia University
  • 1960 American Specialist, State Department, South American Countries
  • 1961 Director of Inter-American Archival Seminar
  • 1970 Died at age 66 and buried in Georgetown Cemetery in Broad Run, Virginia. [1]

Bibliography -- Primary Works, A Chronology

About[1]

  • The Congress of Aix-la Chapelle, 30 Sept. to 22 Nov., 1818 by Theodore R. Schellenberg. Thesis (M.A.). University of Kansas, History, 1930.
  • "Jeffersonian Origins of the Monroe Doctrine". Durham, N.C.: Duke University, 1934. Hispanic American Historical Review 14.1 (1934): 1-31.
  • European Background of the Monroe Doctrine, 1818-1923. Diss. University of Pennsylvania, 1934.
  • Index to the hearings on the Codes of fair competition held under the National Industrial Recovery Act / prepared by T.R. Schellenberg, executive secretary, Joint Committee on Materials for Research of the American Council of Learned Societies and the Social Science Research Council (Washinton DC: 1934), (Reprinted: Washington, NARA, 1943).
  • Guide to the hearings on the marketing agreements, codes, licenses and processing tax matters of the Agricultural adjustment administration. (Joint Committee on Materials for Research, United States, 1934.)
  • Hearings on the code of fair competition held under the National industrial recovery act, deposited at the Code record station of the National industrial recovery administration Copied by the Joint committee on materials for research of the American council of learned societies and the Social science research council. (United States.; Joint Committee on Materials for Research, 1934), (Washington, D.C., 1980).
  • “Library Applications of Micro-photocopying.” LJ 60 (1935): 289-282. Manual on methods of reproducing research materials; a survey made for the Joint Committee on Materials for Research of the Social Science Research Council and the American Council of Learned Societies, by Robert C. Binkley, with the assistance of T. R. Schellenberg (Ann Arbor, MI: Edwards, 1936).
  • "Editor Abraham L. Schellenberg" Mennonite Life (1954): 19-28.[1]
  • European archival practices in arranging records. (Washington: National Archives, Office of the Executive Officer, 1939), (Washington: NARA, 1975).
  • Disposition of federal records; how to develop an effective program for the preservation and disposal of records (GPO, 1949).
  • Preparation of lists of record items (Washington D.C.: National Archives, 1951), (Washinton, D.C.: NARA, 1960), (Washington, D.C.: National Archives, 1976).
  • “The Approach to Historical Source Materials, With Particular Reference to the Archives of Tasmania” Tasmanian Historical Research Association, Papers and Proceedings 3.4 (1954): 57-60. Appraisal of modern public records (Washington D.C.: GPO, 1956).
  • “Applying American Archival Experience Abroad.” AA 19 (1956): 33-38. “Modern Archival Buildings.” Archivum 6 (1956): 88-92. Modern archives: Principles and techniques (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, © 1956, 1968) (Chicago: University of Chicago Press 1975) (Chicago: SAA, 1996). (SAA, 2003).
  • Archives of Trinidad and Tobago. (co-authored by Clinton Block). (Port of Spain : G.P.O., Trinidad, 1958).
  • Archivos modernos; principios y técnicas. Traducción y adiciones, Manuel Carrera StampaSeries: Instituto Panamericano de Geografia e Historia. Publicaciones del con de Archivos de la Comisión de Historia (Habana, 1958), (México : AGN, Archivo General de la Nación : Dirección de Administración de Documentos del Gobierno Federal, 1987).
  • Manual de arquivos. Lang=Portuguese. Tradução de Manoel A. Wanderley (Rio de Janeiro : Ministerio da justica e neg’ocios interiores, Arquivo nacional, 1959). La importancia de los archivos / T.R. Schellenberg ; [versión española de Gunnar Mendoza L.] (Potosí, Bolivia : Universidad Tomás Frías, 1959).
  • “The Future of the Archival Profession.” AA 22 (1959): 49-58.
  • Topical outlines of archival management lectures, Georgia Institute of Technology Library, April 8-10, 1959. Washington: General Services Administration, National Archives and Records Service, 1959.
  • Manual de arquivos. Language=Portuguese. Tradução de Manoel A. Wanderley.2nd ed. (Bahia, Brazil, Imprensa Oficial, 1960). Notes: Translation of: Modern archives; principles and techniques.
  • Principios archivísticos de ordinación. Trans. Gunnar Mendoza L. Lang.=Spanish. Series: Serie archivistica y bibliografica ;; 1. (Sucre, Bolivia : Universidad de San Francisco Xavier, 1960), (Washington [Reunión Interamericana sobre Archivos], 1961). ([México] : Archivo General de la Nación, 1979).
  • Problemas arquivísticos do govêrno brasileiro. Language: Portuugese. [Archival problems of the federal government of Brazil]. Tradução de Lêda Boechat RodriguesRio de Janeiro: Ministério da Justiça e Negócios Interiores, Arquivo Nacional, 1960.
  • Archival principles of arrangement. (Chicago : Society of American Archivists, 1961). Notes: "Reprinted from the American archivist, v. 24, no. 1, January 1961."
  • Técnicas descriptivas de archivos. Traducción por George S. Ulibarri. (Córdoba : Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Facultad de Filosofía y Humanidades, Escuela de Archiveros, 1961).
  • Desarrollo de la Profesión Archivística. Paper presented at the Inter-American Archival Seminar. (Washington: GSA, 1961).
  • El futuro de la la Profesión Archivística. Paper presented at the Inter-American Archival Seminar. (Washington: GSA, 1961).
  • El principio de procedencia. Paper presented at the Inter-American Archival Seminar. (Washington: GSA, 1961).
  • A avaliação dos documentos públicos modernos. [Lang.=Portuguese]. Tradução de Lêda Boechat Rodrigues. (Rio de Janeiro : Arquivo Nacional, 1959). Translation of: The appraisal of modern public records. Técnicas descriptivas de archivos, por Theodore R. Schellenberg. Traducción por George S. Ulibarri. Series: Collectanea archivistica, 2. Córdoba [Universidad Nacional de Córdoba] 1961.
  • Akten- und Archivwesen in der Gegenwart : Theorie und Praxis. Aus dem Englischen Übers. [Document and archives nature in the present: Theory and practice. From the English]. Translated by Gudrun Banzhaf durchgesehen von Ernst Posner und Georg Winter. Series: Archiv und Wissenschaft,; Bd. 2; (München, K. Zink, 1961).
  • “Inter-American Archival Seminar, Washington D. C., October 9-27, 1961” Acrhivalische Zeitschrift 58 (1962): 138-145.
  • “Weather Bureau.” Dictionary of American History. NY: Charles Scribner’s and Sons, 1961.
  • Documentos públicos e privados: arranjo e descrição, por T. R. Schellenberg. Tradução de Manoel A. Wanderley. (Lang=Portuguese) (Rio de Janeiro, 1963).
  • ha-Arkhiyon be-yamenu halakhah le-ma`aseh. Language=Hebrew. ([Tel Aviv] : Yahdav,; Israel; Tel Aviv, 1965). Notes: Translation of Modern archives; principles and techniques. Responsibility: arikhah miktso`it shel ha-mahadurah ha-`Ivrit ha-murhevet: A. Alsberg ; petah davar me'et A. Beyn.
  • “Principles of Archival Appraisal.” Caribbean Archives Conference Documentation. Document 6. (Mona, Jamaica, 1965).
  • “The Principle of Provenance and Modern Records in the United States” AA 28 (1965): 39-41.
  • “Archival Training in Caribbean Countries.” Caribbean Archives Conference Documentation. Document 9a. (Mona, Jamaica, 1965).
  • “A Nationwide System of Controlling Historical Manuscripts in the United States.” AA 28 (1965): 409-412.
  • “Carribean Archives Conference, 1965.” AA 29 (1966): 387-393.
  • The Abraham Klaassen family history. Broad Run, Va.: T.R. Schellenberg, 1968. Delivered at the Klaassen reunion June 2, 1968. (at Lehigh, Kansas). Broad Run, Va. : T.R. Schellenberg, 1968.
  • “Archival Training in Library Schools.” AA 31 (1968): 155-165.
  • Principios archivisticos de ordenación. Traducción del Centro Interamericano de Formación de Archivistas de la Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Argentina. Serie, información de archivos ;; 6. (México, D.F. : Archivo General de la Nación, 1982—second ed.). Management of archives (New York: Columbia UP, 1965), (New York: Columbia UP, 1966)(Washington D.C.: NARA, 1988).
  • “Standards for Archival Positions: Paper Read Before the National Archives American Federation of Government Employees, June 8, 1966.” (Washington, National Archives, 1966).
  • Die Bewertung modernen Verwaltungsschriftguts. Translated and Emendated by and Angelika Menne-Haritz. Series: Veröffentlichungen der Archivschule Marburg, Institut für Archivwissenschaft. (Marburg : Archivschule,1990).
  • Arquivos modernos: princípios e técnicas. [Language: Portuguese]. Tradução de Nilza Teixeira Soares (Rio de Janeiro Ed FGV, 2002—Second ed.).
  • Methods of reproducing research materials a survey made for the Joint Committee on Materials for Research of the Social Science Research Council and the American Council of Learned Societies, 1900-1983? by Robert C. Binkley ... with the assistance of Dr. T.R. Schellenberg, Professor Miles Hanley, Miss Josephine McCarter, Miss Adeline Barry and many others. Alternate Title: Reproducing research materials. Notes: Lithoprinted./
  • Wolff-Wilson, Alison. Authority control as an alternative to the record group concept : comments from the writings of T.R. Schellenberg. CIDS Seminar. (Washington, 1986). 2 pages. Notes: "May 30, 1986."/ Done in connection with the special CIDS Seminar, conducted by Actinig Archivist, Frank G. Burke, from Mar. 14 through May 30, 1986./ Bibliography: leaves [1]-2 (2nd foliation).

Bibliography -- Manuscript Materials, A Chronology

  • Methods of coordinating the work upon records by the Department of Agriculture and the National Archives : paper read before an in-service training group of the Department of Agriculture August 21, 1939. ( [Washington, D.C.] : National Archives, 1939). 4 pages. Holding Library=National Archives Library (MD).
  • Improving the management of current records. (Washington, D.C.: U.S. National Archives, Records Branch, 1945). 6p. Holding Library=National Archives Library (MD). Notes: “Caption title."/ "September 11, 1945."
  • Establishing a records depository. (Washington, D.C. : U.S. National Archives, Records Branch, 1945). 4 pages. Notes: Caption title."/ "August 21, 1945."
  • Preparing disposal schedules and disposal lists for records. ([Washington, D.C. : U.S. National Archives, Records Branch, 1945). 7 pages. Series: Records Branch field memorandum ;; no. 4; Notes: "Caption title."/ "August 20, 1945."
  • Improving the filing system. [Washington, D.C. : U.S. National Archives, Records Branch, 1945]. 1 p. Holding Library=National Archives Library (MD). Notes: Caption title."/ "September 19, 1945."
  • Making an inventory of field records. [Washington, D.C. : U.S. National Archives, Records Branch, 1945). 3 pages. "Caption title."/ "September 26, 1945." Holding Library=National Archives Library (MD).
  • Identifying and disposing of non-record materials. (Washington, D.C. : U.S. National Archives, Records Branch, 1945). 3 pages. "Caption title."/ "August 21, 1945)." Holding Library=National Archives Library (MD).
  • Selecting records for preservation. (Washington, D.C. : U.S. National Archives, Records Branch, 1945). Holding Library=National Archives Library (MD). Notes: "Caption title."/ "September 24, 1945."
  • Operating a records depository. Washington, D.C. : U.S. National Archives, Records Branch, 1945.
  • The problem of access to government archives. 7 pages. (Washington, D.C.? : s.n., 1954). Holding Library=National Archives Library (MD).
  • Arrangement of private papers. [Canberra : Library Association of Australia, Archives Section, 1957). Notes: Caption title./ Excerpted from Archives and manuscripts, August, 1957. Bibliography : p. 16-19. No holding library listed. 19 pages.
  • Description of private papers. Caption title./ Excerpted from Archives and manuscripts, August 1957./ Bibliography: p. 17-18. 18 p. (Canberra : Library Association of Australia, 1957). Holding libraries = NONE.
  • Draft of a manual of policies and procedures for handling pictorial records. 1959. Unpublished manuscript. University of Texas-Austin.
  • Lecture series on archival instruction ... Chicago, April 27-29, 1959.
  • Unpublished mss. O preparo de listas de maços de documentos. Language=Portuguese. Note: Translation of an article from the National Archives staff information papers, no. 17, Nov., 1959.). 37 p. (Rio de Janeiro : Ministério da Justiça e Negócios Interiores, Arquivo Nacional, 1960). Holding location: National Archives Library (MD).
  • Schellenberg lineage, 1960. 67 pages. Possibly mss. Holding Library: Fresno Pacific University.
  • Survey techniques for old records. (Chicago [Ill.] : Record Controls, 1960). Notes: 2 p. "Advance notice [of] annual seminar." Holding location: National Archives Library (MD).
  • Archives administration : outline of training course given in the National Archives. Washington, D.C. : T. Schellenberg, 1960.
  • Draft of a manual on archival descriptive techniques. (Austin, Texas, State Historical Survey Comm., 1961).
  • Trabajos y manuales. Lista general de trabajos especiales preparados para la Reunión. Conference publication (cnp). Conference Name: Reunión Interamericana sobre Archivos (1961 : Washington, D.C.). 6 pages. Holding library: University of Florida.
  • Chapter [6: Técnicas descriptivas de archivos, por T.R. Schellenberg.--[7] Manual de archivología hispanoamericana, por Aurelio Tanodi.

Bibliography -- Archival Materials

  • Personal papers available at Kansas State Historical Society. 28 microfilm reels. No restrictions. Microfilm (no. MS 1137-MS 1163 and MS 1244. Associated materials: The papers, of A.L. Schellenberg, 1897-1941, father of T.R. Schellenberg (boxes 2, 3, and 4 of the T.R. Schellenberg, MS. Collection no. 17, comprising a total of twenty-four boxes) have not been microfilmed. A description of these records, as well as additional information about other parts of this collection, may be found in the series list, available in the Research Room of the Kansas State Historical Society./ Roll number contents list available in the repository.”
  • Tabor College (Hillsboro, KS), one container (12x10x1 in.).

Annotated Bibliography -- Secondary Works: Contemporary Reviews, A Chronology

  • Antiquarian Bookman 36 (1965): 733.
  • Booklist 62 (1965): 237.
  • H. G. Jones. AA 28.4 (1965): 565. Points out that the purpose of the book is to function as a manual to apply “archival principles and techniques to . . . manuscript collections and to the records of nongovernmental bodies.” And that “the major obstacle to improved administration of records is the absence of a systematized, standardized set of archival definitions, principles and techniques” leading to “confusion” by archivists. The reviewer criticizes Schellenberg for not addressing the legal implications and for waffling on the issue of the role of records manager between his two books. Notes how the book will spark a debate on the training of archivists.
  • Hilda Lofthouse. Library Review 20 (1966): 349. Anticipates the rivalry between the second edition of Jenkinson’s Manual of Archive Administration which appeared that same year. Criticizes for length.
  • Icko Iben. LQ 36 (1966): 265. “As a didactic device this volume would be hard to surpass,” but criticizes him for repetitiveness and not being concise. Notes that the suggestion that archivists should be trained in library schools is controversial.
  • J. W. Dudley. Library Resources and Technical Services 10 (1966): 349. Correctly anticipates that problems that will arise when Schellenberg’s rules derived from his National Archives experience are applied to small archives. Stresses the fact Schellenberg is attempting to shift from librarian approach to an archival one by first “defining the principles and techniques of the profession” and then standardizing them.
  • R. E. Stevens. LJ 90 (1965): 3425. Notes that other than Shellenberg, “there is no literature of American archival practice.” However, states that archivists are “jealous” of librarians for their “established practices.”

Bibliography -- Secondary Works: Post-Custodial Criticism, A Chronology

  • Obituary in The Washington Post.
  • Obituary in the Tabor Bulletin.
  • Jane E. (R.)? Smith (1981). [Theodore R.] Schellenberg: Americanizer and Popularizer. AA 44: 313-26.
  • Michael Cook, Leonard Rapport, Hans Booms, Charles M. Dollar, Terry Eastwood. “In Memoriam: Schellenberg (1903-1970),” AA 33 (Apr. 1970): 190-202. With a complete bibliography of his writings.”
  • Stapleton, Rick. The Ideas of T.R. Schellenberg on the Appraisal, Arrangement, and Description of Archives. Master’s Thesis. Ottawa: National Library of Canada. (1986).
  • Boles, Frank. “Et tu Schellenberg? Thoughts on the Dagger of American Appraisal Theory: Reply to L. Duranti” AA 59.3 (1996): 298-310.
  • Henry, Linda J. “Schellenberg in Cyberspace: Theories of Theodore Schellenberg applied to electronic records; revised version of a paper presented at the 1997 SAA Conference” AA 61.2 (1998): 309-27.
  • Tschan, Reto. "A Comparison of Jenkinson and Schellenberg on Appraisal." AA 65.2 (2002): 176-95.
  • Duranti, Luciana. “Managing Records as Evidence and Informaton.” LQ 73 (2003): 220-2.

Bibliography -- Secondary Works: Schellenberg Publications Mentioned

  • Modern Archives: Principles and Techniques (1956), originally published as a circular for the staff at the National Archives called Appraisal of Modern Records,[1] was described as “a replacement for Jenkinson’s Manual of Archive Administration” which Schellenberg felt was “outdated” and “unreliable.”[1]
  • The Management of Archives (1965) described as a “controversial” work which resulted as part of his teaching experience after retirement that dared to argue that “archive science should be taught in library schools.”[1]
  • Other books published in Brazil and Argentina
  • Other contributions to books and journals

References


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